"In 2007, China's gear market continued to rank the third in the world in terms of total scale and production volume, and China has become a veritable major gear manufacturing country," pan Wenyue, Deputy Secretary General of the gear professional association, told China industry daily a few days ago.
However, he also said that despite the rapid development, there are still many problems in the anchor gear industry in China, such as backward product research and development, backward technology level, etc., and the R & D level and product quality of enterprises need to be improved.
Rapid growth rate, gear industry highlights six characteristics
Through the analysis and comparison of the statistical data provided by the National Bureau of statistics and the General Administration of Customs in recent years, pan Wenyue believes that China's gear industry presents six major characteristics.
First of all, China's gear industry is growing rapidly, and the overall market demand and domestic production have maintained a high growth.
In 2006, the total market demand was 90.2 billion yuan, and the domestic sales revenue was about 70 billion yuan. Although the final statistical results of the whole industry in 2007 have not been obtained, it can be predicted that the total market demand in 2007 should be about 100 billion yuan, and the domestic sales revenue should be more than 85 billion yuan. Pan Wenyue told our reporter.
Pan Wenyue believes that this mainly benefits from the rapid development of the automobile industry. In 2007, China's automobile production reached 8.8 million, an increase of more than 1 million over the previous year. In the gear industry, gear for vehicles occupies a large share, which greatly promotes the development of gear industry.
Second, in terms of production regions, the gear industry in East China developed fastest, accounting for 52.8% of the total output in 2007. Gear enterprises in East China are relatively concentrated, especially in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, with a large number of private enterprises. In addition to the old enterprises such as nangaochi and Hangzhou Qianjin, most of the enterprises in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces with sales revenue of more than 500 million yuan are newly emerging private enterprises with rapid development momentum.
The other regions are as follows: North China 19.1%, southwest 8.7%, central China 8.1%, northwest 6.7%, northeast 4.7%.
Third, the product trade deficit is large and gradually increasing, and the automatic transmission is under the control of others. In 2006, China imported 3.37 billion US dollars of gear products, including 1.637 billion US dollars of automatic transmission. It is estimated that the total import volume in 2007 will be more than 5 billion US dollars, and the automatic transmission will reach 2.5 billion US dollars.
Pan Wenyue analyzed that in order to monopolize the Chinese market, foreign enterprises have imposed strict technical blockade on automatic transmission. The United States, Germany, Japan and South Korea, after monopolizing the vehicle market, also require the matching gearbox to use foreign products, which limits the development of automatic transmission in China, and is also an important reason for the trade deficit.
At the same time, the automatic transmission technology is more complex, the development cost is high, and the risk is high, which requires the cooperation of scientific research institutions, colleges and universities and manufacturers. However, the domestic industry, University and Research Institute, as well as the main engine plant and gearbox factory, have not been well integrated together. As a result, although some research institutes and enterprises have developed for more than ten years, their products have not been fully industrialized.
Fourth, 44.5% of the imported gears came from Japan, 16.9% from Germany, and 8.3%, 6.8% and 4.2% in South Korea, the United States and France, respectively;
Among the export enterprises, foreign enterprises accounted for 31%, state-owned enterprises accounted for 28.7%, private enterprises accounted for 21.4%, Sino foreign joint ventures accounted for 12.7%, and others accounted for about 6%;
From the perspective of export countries, most products are exported to developed countries or regions. Among them, 23.6% were exported to the United States, 15.6% to Japan and 7.9% to Italy. Some developed countries import low-end products from China, while complex high-end products are produced by themselves. They use China's cheap labor and resources as their processing plants.
Fifth, gear products are widely used. According to statistics, the automobile industry is the most widely used, accounting for 36.6%; agricultural machinery accounts for 10.3%; construction machinery accounts for 5.8%; motorcycle accounts for 5.3%. These four parts are called vehicle gears, with a total amount of nearly 60%. The second is cement building materials, lifting and transportation, mining machinery, metallurgy, etc.
Sixth, in the gear industry, the status of private enterprises is becoming more and more prominent. The number of private enterprises is close to 80% of the whole industry, with total assets accounting for 46.94%, sales revenue accounting for 51.95% and profit accounting for 4.57%. Although some private enterprises are small in scale, they have flexible mechanism and high production efficiency.
Three big gaps hinder the development of the industry
Although China's gear industry ranks the third in the world in terms of market scale and production volume, there are still many hidden dangers in the development of the industry due to the lack of high-end products.
First of all, product research and development is backward. Many enterprises have not yet established independent R & D system, and there are fewer products independently developed. Even some large enterprises still have a considerable gap with foreign advanced enterprises in terms of digestion and absorption of introduced technology and independent innovation.
Pan Wenyue believes that our current situation is similar to that of Japan decades ago. "Japan also imitates the products of developed countries, but every time they import a set of equipment, they will fully digest and absorb it, and produce a second one by itself. So does South Korea." But our country's various forces are relatively scattered, everyone sweeps the snow in front of the door, delays the development and production of new products.
"The state now attaches great importance to the establishment of R & D centers." Pan Wenyue told China industry daily that last year, the first national technology development center of the gear industry had passed the certification in Chongqing gear box factory, and some enterprises will become national or industrial R & D centers in succession. "We must invest a lot of money and manpower to establish our own R & D center, in order to gradually reverse the problem that our independent R & D capability is too weak."